DMB inhibits formation of microbial trimethylamine (TMA) in mice (e.g., from bacteroidetes bacteria Proteus mirabilis) and in human feces, It thereby reduces plasma levels of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) after choline or carnitine supplementation.
While mice placed on a choline supplemented diet showed an increase in the proportions of Clostridiales (Firmicutes including pathogens), DMB induced a decrease in the proportions of these bacteria.
DMB is found in some cold-pressed extra virgin olive oils, grapeseed oils, balsamic vinegars, and red wines. It has pheromone-like properties attracting female sap-sucking insects.
It has been shown that blocking diet-induced atherosclerosis at the host level can be done by genetically knocking down flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3), but that results in the fish malodor syndrome (TMAU). There’s growing appreciation that inhibition of microbial formation of TMA (and thus of TMAO) may be a better way of treating heart disease.
Wang, Zeneng; Roberts, Adam B.; Buffa, Jennifer A.; Levison, Bruce S.; Zhu, Weifei; Org, Elin; Gu, Xiaodong; Huang, Ying; Zamanian-Daryoush, Maryam; Culley, Miranda K.; DiDonato, Anthony J.; Fu, Xiaoming; Hazen, Jennie E.; Krajcik, Daniel; DiDonato, Joseph A.; Lusis, Aldons J.; Hazen, Stanley L. (December 2015). "Non-lethal Inhibition of Gut Microbial Trimethylamine Production for the Treatment of Atherosclerosis". Cell 163 (7): 1585–1595. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2015.11.055.