Acceptable daily intake is 15 mg/kg body weight.
Calorie-free sugar substitute (artificial sweeetener), potassium salt of 6-methyl-1,2,3-oxathiazine-4(3H)-one 2,2-dioxide. Also known as E950, acesulfame K, Ace K, Sunett and Sweet One, Acesulfame potassium is as sweet as aspartame, 180-200 times sweeter than sucrose, half as sweet as saccharin (that also has a slightly bitter aftertaste), and only a quarter as sweet as sucralose.
Acceptable daily intake is 15 mg/kg body weight.
Acetaminophen (United State Adopted Name: USAN) or Paracetamol (International Nonproprietory name: INN) is a popular drug used for the relief of fever, headaches, and other minor aches and pains. It's analgesic (pain reliver) and antipyretic (reducing fever). Acetaminophen is a major ingredient in numerous cold and flu medications and many prescription analgesics. It is safe in standard doses, but because of its wide availability, deliberate or accidental overdoses are not uncommon. Acetaminophen, unlike other common analgesics such as aspirin and ibuprofen, is not a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug or NSAID. In normal doses acetaminophen does not irritate the lining of the stomach nor affect blood coagulation, the kidneys, or the fetal ductus arteriosus (as NSAIDs can).
Acetaminophen is used on its own or in combination with pseudoephedrine, dextromethorphan, chlorpheniramine, diphenhydramine, doxylamine, codeine, hydrocodone, or oxycodone.
General Dosing Guidelines for adults: 325 to 650 mg every 4 to 6 hours or 1000 mg every 6 to 8 hours
simplest aromatic ketone, in small amounts can be found in apple, apricots, cheese, chicory, banana, beef, and cauliflower. It is a precursor to useful resins and fragrances, is used in chewing gum and is an ingredient in fragrances that resemble smell of almond, cherry, honeysuckle, jasmine, and strawberry.
In humans, acetophenone is metabolized to benzoic acid, carbonic acid, and acetone, but it can be also excreted in its original form in feces and saliva.
Deuterated acetophenone smells fruitier than ordinary acetophenone. It also smells slightly of bitter almonds, just like many compounds containing the cyanide or nitrile group (C≡N) - as both C–D and C≡N bonds vibrate at the same frequency (about 2200 cm-1). See also 2-aminoacetophenone
organic molecules that make up proteins
methyl ester of the aspartic acid/phenylalanine dipeptide used as a sugar substitute in some foods and beverages. Aspartame is a non-saccharide sweetener, and as a non-carbohydrate it differentiates from other sweeteners like sucrose and glucose. It is also classified as artificial and non-nutritive - as it has only 4 calories per gram.
Aspartame is roughly 200 times sweeter than sucrose and is fully digested by the body, breaking down to methanol, formaldehyde, formic acid, phenylalanine and aspartic acid. In carbonated drinks, it also creates a substance called aspartylphenylalanine diketopiperazine. US FDA has set the ADI for aspartame at 50 mg/kg of body weight/day. In contrast, the European Commission’s Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) has set it at 40 mg/kg. This means that an adult should not consume more than 20 aspartame-sweetened 12oz carbonated soft drinks per day.
A tetrameric or dimeric glucoprotein found in uncooked egg white. It can bind to and inactivate biotin, and when present in abundance could result in a deficiency of biotin (Vitamin H, that like other B vitamins helps the body to convert food (carbohydrates) into fuel (glucose), which is used to produce energy, and promotes growth. It could also inhibit bacterial growth acting as an antibiotic).
hydrocarbon present in coal tar and petroleum, cigarette smoke, used in chemical synthesis, motor fuels, solvents, detergents, pesticides, personal care items such as nail polish or hair color and many other substances. It has a sweet, aromatic, gasoline-like odor. Benzene is a carcinogen that causes leukemia as well as a number of other illnesses. Virtually the entire U.S. population is exposed to benzene, at least in small amounts -- at gas stations (it's in the gasoline), in diesel exhaust or from cigarette smoke, including second-hand smoke. Benzene is also a problem in a number of workplaces, including oil refineries, coal-coking operations at steel mills, chemical processing plants, rubber manufacturing plants and laboratories, where it is often used as a solvent for other chemicals. You can avoid one significant source of benzene by stepping away from the gas pump when refueling your car.
Benzene levels in breath increase after exposure to tobacco smoke, but there are additional sources of benzene in breath than ambient air. It is difficult to establish exact relationships with the number of cigarettes smoked, or with other benzene exposures such as diet.
Short-chain fatty acid, produced by gut bacteria, occurring in the form of esters in animal fats and used in disinfectants, emulsifying agents, and pharmaceuticals. Colorless, syrupy liquid organic acid with the extremely unpleasant smell of rancid butter or putrefying cheese.
Chemical Formula: C4H8O2 CAS Number: 107-92-6
Synonyms: n-Butanoic acid; n-Butyric acid; Ethylacetic acid; Propylformic acid; 1-Butyric acid; 1-Propanecarboxylic acid; n-C3H7COOH; Propanecarboxylic acid; Butanic acid; Buttersaeure; IMET 3393; Kyselina maselna; UN 2820; 1-butanoic acid
Butyrate and other short-chain fatty acids produced by gut bacteria can decrease intestinal permeability and boost immune system, protect the brain, and may help reduce scarring in arteries after vascular surgery. Gut microbiota (Clostridium - especially Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Eubacterium rectale/Roseburia spp., Eubacterium, Butyrivibrio and others) produce butyrate by fermenting carbohydrates in a high fiber diet. Some studies have shown that patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease lack butyrate-producing bacteria and have lower levels of butyrate in their gut.
a waxy substance obtained from food or synthesized in the liver. Some tropical oils, such as palm oil, palm kernel oil and coconut oil, also can trigger the liver to make more cholesterol. Together with other substances, cholesterol can form a thick, hard deposit that can narrow the arteries and make them less flexible. Compositions of 50% cholesterol and 25% protein form LDL or bad cholesterol. Smaller particles with 20% cholesterol and 50% protein are known as HDL - aka good cholesterol - and act as a scavenger, carrying LDL cholesterol away from the arteries and back to the liverto be broken down and passed from the body. Condition with arteries filled with bad cholesterol is known as atherosclerosis. If a clot forms and blocks a narrowed artery, a heart attack or stroke can result.
Sometimes referred to as Vitamin B4, strongly-basic compound that is a constituent of lecithin, essential in the metabolism of fat. Although choline is not by strict definition a vitamin, it is an essential nutrient. one of the “lipotropic” factors (has the ability to remove and prevent fatty deposits in the body).
Choline is an important micronutrient for endurance athletes, pregnant and postmenopausal women. It is needed for neurotransmitter synthesis (acetylcholine), cell-membrane signaling (phospholipids), lipid transport (lipoproteins), and methyl-group metabolism (homocysteine reduction). It is important for brain and memory development in the fetus and appears to decrease the risk of the development of neural tube defects. Most common signs of choline deficiencies are fatty liver and hemorrhagic kidney necrosis.
Choline is a precursor to trimethylamine, which some individuals are not able to break down due to a genetic disorder called trimethylaminuria or certain types of microbial dysbiosis. These individuals have a strong fishy or otherwise unpleasant body odor that can occur even on a normal diet, not particularly high in choline and they need to dramatically reduce it. In this case, recommended intake is 30 to 40mg taken 3 to 5 times per day with food. The recommended adequate intake of choline for those not-suffering from TMAU is set at 425 milligrams (mg)/day for women and 550 mg/day for men.